2. Complete a chain dialogue through participation in a communication situation
1. Reread text to note relationships between key points
2. Assess text in the light of a previous reading
3. Use word cluster/collocations derived from materials read
Heighten awareness of being human in a highly technological age
1. Write a persuasive essay
2. Use reported speech accurately in oral and written compositions
II. SUBJECT MATTER
A. Listening: “Breakthrough in Information Technology”
B. Reading: “Computers: Machine With Electronic Brains”
C. Literature: “The Flying Machine”
D. Grammar Form: Direct and Indirect Speeches
Function: Reporting Other Person's Speech
References: Avenues in English III
English Communication Arts III
New Horizon in Learning English
E. Writing: Writing a persuasive essay
With the advances made in Science and Technology man pushes into an exciting life in the year 2000. With important discoveries and inventions man is able to do many things to realize his dreams and goals.
Task 1 Pre-reading
Picture Word Association
What words can you associate with this picture?
Go over the pool of words and phrases below, then group or cluster words that are related.
The human brain is the most complex piece of machinery in the universe. Can the human brain compete with electronic brains such as computers? Read the selection and find out.
Computers: Machines With Electronic Brains
1. “The marvel of the machine age, the electronic computer has been in use since 1946. It can do simple computations- add, subtract, multiply and divide – with lightning speed and perfect accuracy. It can multiply two 10 digit numbers in 1/1,000 seconds, a problem that would take an average man five minutes to do with pencil and paper. Some computers can work 5000,000 times faster than a man.
2. "Once it is given a "program" – that is, once it is asked a carefully worked out set of questions devised by a technician trained in computer language – a computer can gather a wide range of information for many purposes. For the scientist, it can get information from outer space or from the depths of the ocean. In business and industry, the computer prepares factory inventories, keeps tract of sales trends and production needs, mails dividend checks, and makes out company payrolls.
3. "Not only can the computer gather facts; it can also store them as fast as they are gathered and can pour them out whenever they are needed. The computer is really a high-powered "Memory" machine that has all the answers –or almost all – to all our questions.
4. "Besides gathering and storing information, the computer can also solve complicated problems that once took months for men to do. For example, within sixteen hours an electronic brain named CHEOPS (which stands for Chemical Engineering Optimization System) was fed all the information necessary for designing a chemical plant. After running through 16,000 possible designs, it picked out the plan for the plant that would produce the most chemical for the least amount of money. Then, it issued a printed set of exact specifications. Before CHEOPS solved this problem, a team of engineers having the same information had worked for a year to produce only three designs, none of which was as efficient as the computers.
5. At times computers seem almost humans. They can "read" hand printed letters, translate scientific papers, play chess, compose music, write plays, and even design other computers. Is it any wonder that they are sometimes called "thinking machines."
6. Even though they are taking over some by the tasks that were once accomplished by our own brains, computers are not replacing us – at least not yet. Our brain has 10 billion cells. A computer has only a few hundred thousand parts. For sometime to come, then, we can safely say that our brains are at least 10,000 times more complex than a computer. How we use them is for us, not computer, to decide.
Task 3 Post-reading Comprehension Check:
Why is the computer considered as the marvel of the machine age?
Compare and contrast the early computers with those of today's.
Why are the computers sometimes called "thinking" machines?
What did CHEOPS do to become more efficient than a team of engineers?
Retell the story of CHEOPS and the chemical plant.
Explain why our brain is more complex than a computer.
If you could ask a computer to do three things, what would they be?
The following are key points extracted from the text. Find their relationships by rereading the paragraph. The first one has been done as an example.
1. Computers are good at gathering information.
1. Sentence No. 2, Paragraph No. 3
2. Computers can store information.
3. Computers are like humans.
4. Computers are not replacing humans.
Assess the text, “Computers: Machines with Electronic Brains.” Use the checklist that follows in assessing a text.
What do you think of the content as a whole?
3- Highly Informative
3- Not Informative
2. Organizational Pattern
How organized is the discussion
3- Very Organized/Coherent
1- Fairly Organized
3. Language Used
What can you say about the language of the text
3- Highly technical
4. Author's Point of View
Is the author objective in expressing his point of view?
3- Very objective
1- Fairly Objective
What is the difference between direct and indirect speech? What changes take place in the sentence structure as a direct speech is transformed to a reported speech?
Day 2 Grammar
Direct Speech vs. Indirect Speech
Study the following sentences:
The teacher says, “The computer has all the answer to all our questions.”
The student asked, “Can it solve mathematical problems?”
The teacher says that the computer has the answers to all our questions.
The student asked if the computer could solve mathematical problems.
Going Over the Sentences:
1. When the quoted part is declarative, it is transformed into a "that clause."
Mr. Florendo says, "The computer has answer to all our questions."
Mr. Florendo says that the computer has answer to all our questions.
2. When the quoted part is interrogative, it is transformed according to the
a. If the quoted part is a "yes" or "no" question, it is transformed into an"if-clause" or "whether clause."
James asks, "is the computer a thinking machine?"
- James asks if the computer is a thinking machine.
- James asks whether the computer is a thinking machine
b. If the quoted interrogative part is any of the WH-questions, it transformed by switching the places of the subject and the verb.
Jerome asks, "What are your plans?"
– Jerome asks what my plans are.
3. The verb in the quoted part should be consistent in tense with the verb inthe introductory part.
– A present tense verb in the introductory part calls for a present tense verb in the quoted part.
Jane says, "I enjoy my computer lessons."
- Jane says, "I enjoy my computer lessons."
- Jane says that she enjoy her computer lessons.
- A present tense verb in the introductory part and a present perfect tense verb in the quoted part retain the present tense verb.
Mary says, "We have tried hard to solve the problem."
– Mary says that they have tried hard to solve the problems.
– A past tense verb in the introductory part and a present tense verb in the quoted part change the quoted part into past tense.
Jimmy said, "The orientation program is successful."
– Jimmy said that the orientation program was successful.
– A past tense verb in the introductory part and a present perfect tense verb in the quoted part change the present perfect verb into past perfect tense.
Eddie said, "The graduates last year have already found good paying job.”
Eddie said that the graduates last year had already found good paying jobs.
– A past tense verb in the introductory part and a future tense verb in the quoted part make the helping verb will and shall, would and should respectively.
Clifton said, "I will take Computer Science next year."
- Clifton said that he would take Computer Science next year.
- A past tense verb in the introductory part and a present tense verb with can and may, make can, could and may, might.
John said, "Without man, the computer can not work."
– John said that without man, the computer could not work.
The verb in the quoted part remains present even if the verb in the introductory part is past tense when the quoted part says or asks for afact or truth.
Clifton said, "The computer is a wonder machine of Science and Technology."
Clifton said that the computer is a wonder machine of Science and Technology."
1. If the quoted part is an imperative sentence, it is changed into an infinitive phrase to make a reported declarative sentence.
Our adviser told us, "Take short-term computer courses in college for six months."
– Our adviser told us to take short-term computer courses in
college for six months.
2. The pronouns in the quoted part are replaced accordingly:
– You with I or we, if it is used as a subject.
Jimmy asks: "What course did you take in college?"
Jimmy asks what course I took in college.
– You with me or us if it is used as an object.
Tom asks, "What gives you inspiration in your studies?"
Tom asks what gives me inspiration in my studies.
– Me with her or him
Mely asks, "Why have you forsaken me?"
Mely asks why I have forsaken her.
Read the following direct quotations. Then, complete the reported quotations with the proper connectives.
1. Pierre asked, "Is CHEOPS: The real name of the electronic brain that designed the chemical plant?"
Pierreasked _____ CHEOPS was the real name of the electronic brain that designed the chemical plant.
2. She says, "Our brains are more complex than a computer."
She says ____ our brains are more complex than a computer.
3. Jason inquired, "How many cells does our brain have?
Jason inquired ____ many cells our brain has?
4. Her friend agrees, "The computer gives details about how to increase productivity.”
5. The man ordered, "Show me the latest model of this type of computer."
The man ordered ____ show him the latest model of that type of computer.
Punctuate the following direct speeches. Then, transform them into indirect speeches.
1. Michael inquired how can computers help in training airline pilots
2. Robert asked what other uses will computers have in aviation
3. The boy asks is the computer a master or a slave
4. She commented Computers will direct flights but they will not replace pilots.
5. He insisted Computers can translate scientific papers
6. The great speaker added there is a danger that man would become so dependent on computers
Convert the following short conversation into a reported speech.
One time, my elder brother and I had a chance to watch a late evening movie about the possibility of the computer taking over man's tasks.
"I'm afraid these computers will really take over all our tasks,” I said.
"Computers cannot replace us, even though over they are taking over some of the tasks that were once accomplished by our brain," my brother replied.
"Yes, I learned that our brain has more than 10 billion cells while the computer has only a few hundred parts, "I agree.
"Therefore, our brain is far more complex than a computer,” my brother explained. "How we use it is for us, not the computer to decide.
Gather as many synonyms as you can of the following words. Be prepared to use them in your composition.
Day 3 Listening
Can the human brain compete with electronic brains like computers?
Task 1 Pre-listening
Pair off the words in the box that are synonymous:
accessible obtainable small
facility skill internet
minimal linked connected
Copy the list of words and read them silently.
Oral reading of the list of words by the whole class.
Task 2 While listening
Listen attentively and be able to tell what the text is all about.
The computer world has become so accessible that anybody, even those who don't own a computer, can rent an E-mail facility, just like learning a post office box or going to a pay station for a long distance call.
E-mail(electronic mail) is the instant exchange of message between E-mail addressee through computer linked by telephone lines. Before the convenience was enjoyed only by computer users linked to the Internet. But now, anybody can use the E-mail at the growing number of Internet service stations.
What you do is just walk into the shop of an E-mail service provider and for a minimal fee, you can start sending and receiving electronic letters through the shop's computers. Some shops offer membership fees entitle privilege holders to an E-mail address.
[During the second reading of the text, instruct the students to number the list of words in the pre-listening stage in the order they hear them in the text.]
Discuss the following with your seatmate
1. What is the article about?
2. Define E-mail?
3. What did the emergence of Internet service stations bring about?
4. What can computers do?
5. What are the author's feelings towards computer use?
In three to four sentences write a précis of the article.
Gather data to defend your stand on whether to or not to include computer education in the new curriculum.
Day 4 Writing
We now live in a global village. What would happen if we don't keep up with trends in technology?
Task 1 Brainstorming
"The inclusion of computer education in the new curriculum"
Task 2 Writing
A persuasive essay induces the audience to think, feel, or behave as projected by the speaker. It intends not only to inform or educate but to move the audience to some forms of action.
Write a persuasive essay on the topic below. You may use the ideas we have generated earlier.
“Computer education a necessity."
Task 3 Post-writing
♦ Show your work to at least three people in class and ask for suggestion.
Rewrite your essay and submit it for checking.
Look up the meaning of these idiomatic expressions:
1. gathered my courage
2. set the machine going
3. spare me
4. it would pay him to consider it
5. word passes around
[Recall important concepts learned from the previous lessons]
1. What ideas come to your mind when you hear the words "The Flying Machine?"
2. Read the following sentences. Try to reduce the meaning of the underlined phrases.
a. And when the morning breeze blew and the sun rose, I gathered my courage.
b. He lifted the key into the tiny machine. Then he set the machine going.
c. Then spare from the execution.
d. It would pay him to consider it only a vision.
e. If ever the word passes around, you and the farmer die within the hour.
Task 2 Reading
Read the selection silently. Find out why the man with the flying machine was beheaded.
The Flying Machine
Ray Bradbury is one of America's most popular science man writers.
"The perfect man, one would suppose, would be a rare combination of innocence and knowledge of evil, who would build and use machines to good purpose in the world we all dream for and desire."
1. The following story is a result of the writer's having come across information that an actual emperor in China during the 12th century or even earlier had ordered beheading for inventing wings. Read the story and find out why.
2. Greek Mythology tells the story of Daedalus and Icarus, an Athenian craftsman and his son, made famous for their flight from Crete on manmade wings constructed of feathers and wax. Daedalus got safely to Sicily, but Icarus ignored his father's warnings not to fly too close to the sun and so fell into the sea and drowned.
3. In the year A.D. 400, the Emperor Yuan held his throne by the Great Wall of China, and the land was green with rain, readying itself toward the harvest; at peace, the people in his dominion were neither too happy nor too sad.
4. Early in the morning of the first day of the first week of the second month of the new year, the Emperor Yuan was sipping tea and fanning himself against a warm breeze when a servant ran across the scarlet and blue garden tiles, calling, "Oh, Emperor, Emperor, a miracle!"
5. "Yes," said the Emperor, "the air is sweet this morning."
6. "No, no, a miracle!' said the servant, bowing quickly.
7. "And this tea is good in my mouth, surely that is a miracle."
8. "No, no, Your Excellency."
9. "Let me guess then –the sun has risen and a new day is upon us. Or the sea is blue. That now is the finest of all miracles."
10. “Excellency, a man is flying!"
11. "What?" The Emperor stopped his fan.
12. “I saw him in the air, a man flying with wings. I heard a voice call out of the sky, and when I looked up, there he was, a dragon in the heavens with a man in its mouth, a dragon of paper and bamboo, coloured like the sun and the grass."
13. It is early," said the Emperor," and you have just wakened from a dream."
14. "It is early, but I have seen what I have seen! Come, and you will see it too."
15. "Sit down with me here," said the Emperor. "Drink some tea. It must be a strong thing, if it is true, to see a man fly. You must have time to think of it, even as I must have time to prepare myself for the sight."
16. They drank tea.
17. "Please," said the servant at last, "or he will be gone."
18. The Emperor rose thoughtfully. "Now, you may show me what youhave seen."
19. They walked into a garden, across a meadow of grass, over a small bridge, through a grove of trees, and up a tiny hill.
20. "There!" said the servant.
21.The Emperor looked up the sky.
22. And in the sky, laughing so high that you could hardly hear him laugh, was a man; and the man was clothed in bright papers and reeds to make wings and a beautiful yellow tail, and he was soaring all about like the largest bird in a universe of birds, like a new dragon in a land of ancient dragons.
23. The man called down to them from high in the cool winds of morning, "I fly, I fly!"
24. The servant waved to him. "Yes, yes!"
25. The Emperor Yuan did not move. Instead he looked at the Great Wall of China now taking shape out of the farthest mist in the green hills, that splendid snake of stones which writhed with majesty across the entire land, that wonderful wall which had protected them for a timeless time from enemy hordes and preserved peace for years without number. He saw the town, nestled to itself by a river and a road and a hill, beginning to waken.
26. "Tell me," he said to his servant, "has anyone else seen this flying man?"
27. "I am the only one, Excellency," said the servant, smiling at the sky, waving.
28. The Emperor watched the heavens another minute and then said, "Call him down," and the servant did, hands cupped to his shouting mouth.
29. The flying man alit with a rustle of paper and a creak of bamboo reeds. He came proudly to the Emperor, clumsy in his rig, at last bowing before the old man.
30. "What have you done?" demanded the Emperor.
31. "I have flown in the sky, Your Excellency," replied the man.
32. "What have you done?" said the Emperor again.
33. "I have just told you! Cried the flier.
34. "You have told me nothing at all. "The emperor reached out a thin hand to touch the pretty paper and the birdlike keel of the apparatus. It smelled cool of the wind.
35. "Is it not beautiful, Excellency?"
36. "Yes, too beautiful."
37. "It is the only one in the world!" world!" smiled the man. "And I am the inventor."
38. "The only one in the world?"
39. "I swear it!"
40. "Who else knows of this?"
41. "No one. Not even my wife, who would think me mad with the sun. She thought I was making a kite. I rose in the night and walked to the cliffs far away. And when the morning breezes blew and the sun rose, I gathered my courage, Excellency, and leaped from the cliff, I flew! But my wife does not know of it."
42. "Well for her, then," said the Emperor. "Come along."
43. They walked back to the great house. The sun was full in the sky now, and the smell of the grass was refreshing. The Emperor, the servant, and flier paused within the huge garden.
44. The Emperor clapped his hands. "Ho, guards!"
45. The guards came running.
46. "Hold this man."
47. "Call the executioner," said the Emperor.
48. "What's this!" cried the flier, bewildered. "What have I done?" He began to weep, so that the beautiful paper apparatus rustled.
49. "Here is the man who has made a certain machine," said the emperor," and yet asks what he had created. He does not know himself. It is only necessary that he creates without knowing why he has done so, or what this thing will do."
50. The executioner came running with a sharp silver ax. He stood with his naked, large-muscled arms ready, his face covered with a serene white mask.
52. "One moment," said the emperor. He turned to a nearby table upon which sat a machine that he himself had created. The Emperor took a tiny golden key from his own neck. He fitted this key to the tiny, delicate machine and wound it up. Then he set the machine going.
53. The machine was a garden of metal and jewels. Set in motion, birds sang in tiny metal trees, wolves walked through miniature forests, and tiny people ran in and out of sun and shadow, fanning themselves with miniature fans, listening to the tiny emerald birds, and standing by impossibly small but tinkling fountains.
54. "Is it not beautiful?" said the Emperor. "If you asked me what I have done here, I could answer you well, I have made birds sing. I have made forests murmur, I have set people to walking in this woodland, enjoying the leaves and shadows and songs. That is what I have done."
55. "But, oh, Emperor!" pleaded the flier on his knees, the tears pouring down his face. "I have done a similar thing! I have found beauty. I have flown on the morning wind. I have looked down on all the sleeping houses and gardens. I have smelled the sea and even seen it, beyond the hills, from my high place. And I have soared like a bird; oh, I cannot say how beautiful it is up there, in the sky, with the wind about me, the wind blowing me here like a feather, there like a fan, the way the sky smells in the morning! And how free one feels! That is beautiful, Emperor, that is beautiful, too!"
56. "Yes," said the Emperor sadly, "I know it must be true. For I felt my heart move with you in the air and I wondered: What is it like? How does it feel? How do the distant pools look from so high? And how my houses and servants? Like ants? And how the distant towns not yet awake?"
57. "Then spare me!"
58. "But there are times," said the Emperor, more sadly still, "when one must lose a little beauty of one is to keep what little beauty one already has. I do not fear you, yourself, but I fear another man."
59. "What man?"
60. "Some other man who, seeing you, will build a thing of bright papers and bamboo like this. But the other man will have an evil face and an evil heart, and the beauty will be gone. It is this man I fear."
61. "Why? Why?"
62. Who is to say that someday just such a man, in just such an apparatus of paper and reed, might not fly in the sky and drop huge stones up the Great Wall of China?" said the Emperor.
63. No one moved or said a word.
64. “Off with his head," said the Emperor.
65. The executioner whirled his silver axe.
66. "Burn the kite and inventor's body and bury their ashes together," said the Emperor.
67. The servants retreated to obey.
68. The Emperor turned to his hand-servant, who had seen the man flying. "Hold your tongue. It was all a dream, a most sorrowful and beautiful dream. And that farmer in the distant field who saw, tell him it would pay him to consider it only a vision. If ever the word passes around, you and the farmer die within the hour."
69. "You are merciful, Emperor."
70. "No, not merciful," said the old man. Beyond the garden wall he saw the guards burning the beautiful machine of paper and reeds that swelled of the morning wind. He saw the dark smoke climb into the sky. "No, only very much bewildered and afraid." He saw the guards digging a tiny pit wherein to bury the ashes. "What is the life of one against those of a million others? I must take solace from that thought."
71 He took the key from its chain about his neck and once more wound up the beautiful miniature garden. He stood looking out across the land at the Great Wall, the peaceful town, the green fields, the rivers and streams. He sighed. The tiny garden whirred its hidden and delicate machinery and set itself in motion; tiny people walked in forests, tiny foxes looped through sun-speckled glades in beautiful shining pelts, and among the tiny trees flew little bits of high song and
bright blue and yellow color flying, flying, flying in that small sky.
72. "Oh," said the Emperor, closing his eyes, "look at the birds, look at the birds!"
Task 3 Post-reading
Questions for Discussion
What was the “miracle” that the servant saw one morning?
What did the Emperor refer to as miracles?
What is the difference in the way the Emperor and the servant used the word "miracles"?
What is the Emperor's dilemma regarding the flying machine?
What did he decide to do with the inventor and his invention?
What was his reason for his decision?
Do you agree with his decision? If so, why? If not, why not?
Explain the quotation at the beginning of this selection. Can you think of inventions that have not been used for a good purpose? Give examples.
Cite examples of recent discoveries or inventions that you think could not be used to good purpose in the world.
Punctuate the direct speeches. Then change them to indirect speeches.
Carolyn said I will be here at noon
Amy asked are you going to eat in the cafeteria
We shall stay here Romeo ordered us
Linda says I love my country
The dresses are for sale Rita says
Supply the correct form of the verb for the following indirect discourses
1. "You have to prepare for the program," the principal ordered.
The principal ordered that we ________ to prepare for the program.
2. Delfin reports, "Baguio is the summer capital of the Philippines.
Delfin reports that Baguio ______ the summer capital of the Philippines.
3. "The boys have to study harder in English," Miss Mateo said.
Miss Mateo said that the boys _____ to study harder in English.
4. Rommel utters, "Melissa knows I like her a lot."
Rommel utters that Melissa he likes her a lot.
5. Melinda remarks, “It is good.”
Melinda remarks that it _________ good.
Be prepared to talk about your experiences on EARTH DAY celebrations.
What active participation have you had in your school or in your community?
The Bureau of Secondary Education (BSE) aims to provide access and quality secondary
education to the Filipino youth. It is responsible for establishing secondary schools where there are none; formulating policies, plans and projects, and maintaining a complete and integrated system of secondary education with regards to curriculum, facilities and teachers' in-service training relevant to the goals of national development.