Listen to appreciate a narrative intended to drive home a point
1. Formulate and modify hypothesis based on information given in the text
2. Take down notes using columnar grids, flow charts, bridge maps
1. Develop a paragraph, expressing thoughts and feelings about a friend
2. Write a letter to a friend who has moved away
3. Make a histogram and a write up of it
4. Edit one’s composition through peer-checking, following guidelines concerning content, format, and mechanics
Use the following patterns in forming definition:
a. Full form;
b. Reduced form;
Term to be verb General Specific
Defined + to be + class + Characteristics
c. Nominal definition
General Relative Specific Verb Terms to be +
Class + Pronoun + Characteristics + to be defined
d. Expanded definition
Definition + Follow up sentence
Infer motives, attitudes, and values of a true friend from what he does based on the character’s portrayal in the story
Use word analysis to arrive at the meaning of unfamiliar terms
Express in an effective manner thoughts and feelings about being a friend
II. SUBJECT MATTER
A. “Damon and Phythias”.
Reference: New Horizons in Learning English by Helen P. Ladera, Magelende M. Flores, Edna M. dela Cruz (Teacher’s Manual), p. 198
B. ”The Way of a Friend” by Lindy Mirasol
C. Reference: New Horizons in Learning English by Helen P. Ladera, Magelende M. Flores, Edna M. dela Cruz (Textbook), pp. 124-126
D. Definition Patterns
1. Full form;
Term to be Verb General Relative Specific
Defined + to be + class + Pronoun + Characteristics
2. Reduced form;
Term to be Verb General Specific
Defined + to be + class + Characteristics
3. Nominal definition
General Relative Specific Verb Terms to be +
Class + Pronoun + Characteristics + to be defined
4. Expanded definition
Definition + Follow up sentence
E. “You’ve Got a Friend”
F. Other instructional materials: charts, magazine, paper, and pencil
Motivation (Pre-listening activity)
1. “The first step in the art of friendship is being a friend.” Get a partner and discuss the answers to these questions
a. What does being a friend mean to you?
b. Do you have somebody whom you call a friend?
c. What do you like about him/her?
d. How long have you been friends?
e. On your part, do you think you have been a friend to him or her, too? In what way?
2. You will listen to a short narrative entitled “Damon and Phythias.” It will be read to you by sections. After each section, a pause will be made to give you time to determine which of these parts of the narrative are given in that section and to try to predict what will come next.
a. Where the story took place
b.When it took place
c. Who figured in the story? (You can expect more than one character in the story.)
d. The situation
e. A problem that arose from the situation
f. An attempt to solve the problem
g. The result of the attempted solution
h. The writer’s evaluation of what took place
Read this story by sections pausing after each section for the students to answer these questions:
a. What element of a story is given in the section?
b. What questions come to your mind after listening to that section?
c. What do you think will come next in the story?
Section 1 (Title) DAMON AND PYTHIAS
1) What question comes to your mind after listening to the title?
2) What "guess" can you make about it?
Section 2 (Opening paragraph)
This story happened in Syracuse, Sicily in the fourth century before the birth of Christ. The tyrant or King of this Greek town was Dionysius. Ruling over Syracuse with a strong hand, he made it one of the most powerful cities. He could be extremely wicked and cruel. In spite of his great power, Dionysius had no friends. He was a lonely man, suspicious of everybody. His subjects feared him. They did not love him.
1. What elements of the story are brought our first? Mention what these are in the story.
2. What questions come to your mind as you listen to the opening section?
3. What do you think might happen as a result of the situation?
Where the story took place: Syracuse. Sicily
When it happened: 4 BC
Introduction of Character 1: King Dionysius
Situation: The king was cruel, wicked, suspicious and so he was feared and unloved
Possible Question: Won't the people revolt against him?
Prediction: Someone will speak up against him.
Section 3 (Start of the rising action)
In Syracuse, was a group of men who realized that many of the acts of Dionysius were unjust and unwise. One of them was Damon. He was courageous enough to speak publicly against the cruelty of the tyrant. When Dionysius learned of it, he had Damon seized and thrown into prison. Damon was sentenced to die.
1. Were your predictions right?
2. What elements of the story are brought out next?
3. What questions come to your mind this time?
4. What do you think might come next?
1) Yes or No as the case may be. However, reasons should be given to justify one's prediction. The justification for the prediction that someone will speak out against a tyrant is that one can only take so much. When situations become unbearable there are those who will conquer their fear and speak out.
2) Introduction of Character 2: Damon
Problem 1: The unjust ways of Dionysius became unbearable
Attempted Solution: Damon spoke out against Dionysius
Result of Attempted Solution: Damon was seized and thrown to prison. He was
sentenced to die.
1) How will Damon and Damon’s friends react?
2) Either there will be an armed revolt or the people will be cowed by their fears.
Section 4 (Complication)
Damon bravely accepted his death sentence, but he wanted to see his family before he died. He begged permission to visit his family and bid them goodbye. Dionysius laughed, "If I give you permission, what guarantee do I have that you will not escape? I give no prisoner of mine a chance to save himself."
“I know that,” Damon answered, “but I have a friend Pythias. He is willing to take my place until I return”.
1. Did you guess right this time?
2. What elements of the story are presented now?
3. What questions come to your mind?
4. What will come next?
1) The result of problem 1 becomes problem 2: Damon accepts the sentence but asks to see his family before his death.
Problem 2: Will Dionysius grant Damon’s request?
Attempted solution to Problem 2: Offer an alternative (Pythias will take Damon’s place while Damon is out).
2) Did Damon talk this out with Pythias before volunteering his friend to be a hostage to insure that he (Damon) would return?
3) How would Dionysius react to Damon’s suggestion..
Dionysius was astounded. "Does Pythias realize that, if you do not return, he must die in your place?" Pythias accepted these terms. Friendship between the two was so strong that Pythias felt it an honor to suffer death in place of Damon. Dionysius granted Damon six hours of feedom. Then he commanded his soldiers to guard Pythias until Damon's return.
1. Were you surprised at Dionysius’ decision?
2. If you were Pythias would you take the place of Damon in prison?
3. What do you think will take place?
1) YES or NO as the case may be but the students will have to justify their
3) Either Damon will return and be executed or he will not return and Pythias would die in his place.
Section 6 (Climax)
Four hours passed, five hours passed, and still Damon did not come. Pythias waited patiently. A few minutes before the end of the sixth hour, Dionysius descended into the prison to see Pythias die. He ridiculed Pythias for trusting his friend. Then he ordered the executioners to delay no longer the execution.
1. What problem was introduced this time?
2. How did this make the story more interesting?
3. What do you think will happen next?
1. The non-arrival of Damon
2. It added to the excitement in the story
3. Damon may still show up either on time or be late to stop the execution of Pythias who would die in his place.
Section 7 (Falling Action)
At this very moment, Damon breathless and mud-stained, dashed into the prison. He embraced his friend and explained that his horse became exhausted and died. He had to find another horse to continue his journey. Now he was ready to die, happy because he had been able to bid farewell to his family and return in time to save his friend's life.
1. How do you suppose would Dionysius react to Damon’s showing up?
2. What would you do if you were in Dionysius place?
1. He would probably be very surprised
2. This is an open-ended question so students may have varied answers
Section 8 (Conclusion)
Dionysius was amazed. Never in his life had he seen such loyalty. Never had he imagined that a man would be willing to die that his friend might live. He was filled with great warmth and compassion. Now, he knew that true friendship was more precious than his power and wealth. The proud tyrant walked over to the two friends and embraced them. Humbly, he begged them to make him their friend. Damon and Pythias and Dionysius walked out of the darkness of the prison into the sunlight together.
1. What did Dionysius realize at the end?
2. Did he grow as a result of the experience?
3. What is the writer telling us about friendship?
Presenting the forms that a definition may take: (Group activity a set of definitions per group)
Distribute these strips to different groups. They are to study the definitions in their strip, compare them based on given questions and determine the patterns that definitions may take.
A true friend is someone who is trustworthy.
A true friend is someone trustworthy.
A true friend is a person whom you can rely on.
A true friend is a person you can rely on.
A loyal friend is one who never gives up on you.
One who never gives up on you is a loyal friend.
A friend is one whose company you enjoy and who in turn likes being with you.
One whose company you enjoy and who in turn like being with you is a friend.
Friendship is a relationship which is characterized by mutual love and trust.
Friendship is a relationship characterized by mutual love and trust.
Friendship is an unspoken pledge of loyalty and unselfishness which is given without question or motive.
Friendship is an unspoken pledge of loyalty and unselfishness given without question or motive.
Friendship is close companionship that reaches out across space and time.
Friendship is close companionship reaching out across space and time.
1) What is talked about in the sentence?
2) Where do you find it mentioned in the sentence: in the beginning (before the verb) or at the end (after the verb)?
3) What is the objective or function of the sentence? Is it to ask information, to give an example or to define a term?
4) If you notice, what is mentioned before the verb is the same or equal to what is said after it. This may be represented in two ways —
Show the relationship or the information found before the verb to what is given after the verb in the sentence strips distributed to you.
5) Put the words in your sentence strip under the sections to which they belong in these sentence patterns of a definition
a) Term to be verb General Relative Specific
Defined + to be + class + Pronoun + Characteristics
A friend is a person who cares for you.
b) General + Relative + Specific + Verb + Term
Classification Pronoun Characteristics to be Defined
A person who cares for you is a friend.
6) Does your definition have a relative pronoun? If it does, which ones are used for persons? for things? for both persons and things?
7) Of the three relative pronouns used for persons which one
a) shows possession
b) is used to refer to the doer of the action
c) is used to refer to the receiver of the action
8) If your definition does not have a relative pronoun what is used to give the specific characteristics? Which of these patterns does it use?
Terms to be + verb + General + prepositional phrase Defined to be class verb + ing phrase
Past participial phrase
1. Practice on defining
Divide yourselves into groups of six and talk about the persons in these pictures. Each student comes up with one of these sentences assigned to him. Number 1 is done for you.
Student Sentence to Produce
A States what the person is doing
B Gives the occupation of the person
C Gives a full definition (with a relative pronoun)
D Gives a full definition (with another relative pronoun)
E Gives a reduced form of the definition
F Gives a nominal definition
Student Expected Responses
A The man is repairing a television set.
B He must be a television technician.
C A television technician is a person who repairs television.
D 1. A television technician is a person whose job is to repair television.
2. A television technician is a person whom we call to repair our television.
E 1. A television technician is a person with skills in repairing televisions.
2. A television technician is a person skilled in repairing televisions.
3. A television technician is a person repairing televisions.
F A person who repairs television is a television technician.
2. Practice on the relative pronouns
Who, Whose, Whom
Here are different kinds of friends you may develop. Fill the blanks with the relative pronoun (who, whose, whom) to complete the definitions of these type of friends.
a. A pen pal is someone...
_____ lives far from you but gets to be your friend through letters.
_____ residence is far from yours but becomes your friend through letters.
_____ you get to know through mail.
b. A phone pal is a person...
_____ you have never met but with ______ you interact over the phone.
_____ makes friends with you over the phone.
_____ friendship you cherish even if you know him only from telephone conversations.
c. A confidant is an individual...
_____ you trust with your secrets.
_____ guards your secrets as his own.
_____ Trustworthiness you can rely on.
d. A fair-weather friend is one...
_____ sticks to you only while you are up but deserts you when you are down and out.
_____ loyalty is questionable.
_____ you should stay away from.
e. A casual acquaintance is an individual...
_____ you know only by name.
_____ is not that close to you.
f. A bosom friend is one...
_____ companionship you cherish.
_____ you love dearly.
_____ takes and accepts me for what I am.
g. A friend of long standing is a person...
_____ has remained close to you through the years.
_____ you have known for a long time.
3. Expanded definition – How Well Do You Know Your Friends?
Name a friend of yours who has these traits. Use this pattern and add a follow-up proof sentence to support your statement. The first one is done for you.
a) has a sense of humor
Answer: Luis is a friend of mine who has a sense of humor. He cracks jokes, makes us laugh and can even laugh at himself.
b) makes firm decisions
c) remains strong in times of crisis
d) loves to join school activities
e) is irritable
f) is proud of his/her family’s achievements
g) is easily affected by peer pressure
a. Schema activation
Here is a popular songhit entitled “You’ve Got a Friend”. Let’s sing it. Then pair off and share with your partner the answer to these questions:
1. What qualities of a friend are played up in the song?
2. Do you have such a friend who has those qualities?
3) Recall and share an incident when your friend displayed those qualities.
You’ve Got a Friend
When you’re down and troubled
And you need a helping hand
And nothing, nothing is going right
Close your eyes and think of me
And soon I will be there
To brighten up even your darkest night
You just call out my name
And you know wherever I am
I’ll come running to see you again
Winter, spring, summer or fall
All you’ve got to do is call
And I’ll be there
You’ve got a friend
If the sky above you should turn dark and full of clouds
And that old north wind should begin to blow
Keep your head together
And call my name out loud
Soon I’ll be knocking on your door
Hey ain’t it good to know that you’ve got a friend
When people can be so cold
They’ll hurt you and desert you
They’ll take your soul if you let them
But don’t let them
b. Clearance of difficulties
1.What words make up these compound words? Use them to help you guess the meaning of the terms.
slingshot suppertime wonderland
earthworm outdoors hand-made
hitch hiked football sweatstained
downstream red-rimmed hillsides
2. What are the rootwords and affixes in these terms and what additional meaning does the affix give?
2. Reading of the selection “The Way of a Friend” (given as an assignment)
The Way of a Friend
1. I still remember clearly. The first time I saw him was early June. Summer days were over and school was about to open.
2. He was happily swinging himself on an old bamboo gate, wearing a tight T-shirt and faded blue shorts. A slingshot dangled from one remaining hip pocket, and with his bare foot he kicked the ground to send himself swinging. His shoulders were broad and his deeply tanned legs and arms seemed overly muscular for a nine-year old.
3. As the new boy in the place, I studied him fearfully, trying to discover what kind of welcome I would have in this little barrio of Alicante — boxing, wrestling, foot racing or talking. While I stood there uneasy and apprehensive, he stopped swinging and calmly looked at me. He studied me intently, then with a grin that seemed to split his face in half, he strolled over and squatted down a few yards in front of me. “I live over there,” he said. My name’s Tazan, T-a-z-a-n, short for Baltazar. What’s yours?
“Hello, Emil,” he whispered. Then for the next few minutes he did not move, his eyes fixed on an earthworm creeping over the moist ground. Then, with a graceful motion he was up. He shaded his face with his hand and looked toward the sun.
5. “The sun says it’s four o’clock — way before suppertime, he said. “Come on let’s go to the river and swim”.
To him, it was that simple. We were to be friends.
6. For the next four years, Tazan was to fill that one great need of childhood: to be able to point to someone and say, “There’s my best friend.” To him, friendship was a pledge of loyalty and unselfishness, given without question or motive. He gladly shared his knowledge of the outdoors without the usual childhood bragging or intimidation. He taught me to fish using an earthworm and a bent pin, to ride a carabao and race on the hillsides, to swing from a vine over Malogo River and drop into the exact spot where the current would carry us downstream for a quarter of a mile deposit us on the slippery, muddy bank.
7. With Tazan, I tasted my first turtle-egg soup, first monkey stew, first pinipig cake and first adobo. We became experts at climbing guava trees and pulling sugarcane from rail cars on their way to the mill.
8. While my room at home was forever clean and neat, Tazan’s was a wonderland of excitement and disarray. There were trophies all around: tin cans filled with marbles and unusual rocks, a bottle containing shells, another with all kinds of seeds. There were half a dozen kites in one stage of assembly or another. Often there would be a bird with a broken wing, now set and mending; or a nest with eggs resting on the desk under the warmth of the lamp.
9. Tazan and I parted in our early teens when my family moved to Victorias. We attempted to keep our friendship alive with summer visits, exchanges of Christmas gifts — mine generally purchased, but his always some handmade wonder — and an occasional letter from me. “What can you tell a friend?” he’d say, explaining why he never wrote, “ by putting words down on paper and not even knowing if he understands what you mean? Besides, friends don’t have to prove anything to anybody, much less to each other.”
10. Then, one day we had our provincial athletic meet, I sat on the bench near the bleachers awaiting the opening of a high school championship football game. My stomach was churning with pre-game nervousness when Tazan strolled into my view. He had given up birthday dinner with his family and hitchhiked seven kilometers to see the game. He had grown tall, and his legs and arms were overly muscular for a 17-year old.
11. After the coach had given instructions, we waited in apprehension to take the field. Tazan leaned forward and with a grin that seemed to split his face in half— shouted, “Watch them when they get the ball”.
12. It was enough to make me forget my nervousness. I went out untroubled by the streams of spectators or the beating of the drums.
13. When the contest was over, I knelt near the center of the field, too exhausted, too numb to move. One eye was red-rimmed with tears, the other already swollen shut and turning blue-black. We had lost 19-18.
14. I forgot everything until Tazan slapped my shoulder and said, “It won’t be long when people won’t even remember who won and who lost. But you keep your score in your own head. You did better than your best today, and that’s all you need to remember. The way I look at it, you won.”
15. We walked off the field together, one sweatstained and beaten, the other striding as if with the champions.
16. It has been more than twenty years since I’ve seen Tazan or the old barrio of Alicante. It’s been that long since I’ve really listened to the creaking of a bamboo gate or the clatter of a tin can kicked by a bare foot.
17. But it was only yesterday, that I advised a youngster, “Friends don’t have to prove anything to anybody, much less to each other.”
18. What’s more, I still keep my score in my head, and that way, a lot of times I figure I’m a winner.
3. Post-reading – Discussion of the selection
a. State the important events that happened in the development of the friendship between Emil and Tazan. Enter them in this histogram.
b. Discuss the answers to the following questions:
1) Was Emil lucky to have Tazan as a friend? Why?
2) How did Tazan show his friendship on Championship Day?
3) Is Tazan the person you would like to have as a friend?
4) What qualities do you want in a friend?
5) Explain the passage, “Friends don’t have to prove anything to anybody, much less to each other.”
a. Writing about a friend
Sketch a histogram of your friendship with your own true friend, who has moved to another place, by providing the information in the chart below. Then, make a write-up of your histogram.
As you write, be sure to keep these in mind.
a) Use the past tense in the incidents that you recall but use the present tense in the lessons you learned from your friend.
b) Be sure the incidents you mention will bring out the qualities of your friend.
For peer-editing have the students pair off and look at their partner’s write-up of their histograms. They are to consider the pointers given in the writing section concerning tenses and the incidents that show the qualities of their friends.
b. Writing to a friend
a) How do you keep in touch with a friend who has moved to another place? How did Emil keep in touch with Tazan?
b) Recall the parts and format of a letter. Have the class identify the information that should be given in the skeleton of a letter.
Have the students write a letter to a friend who has moved to another place. Suggest that they recall in their letter incidents where they learned something about friendship from their friend. Suggest, too, that they thank him/her for being a friend.
Have the students go over their work with these pointers in mind:
a) Did I follow the correct format, punctuation, paragraphing and rules of capitalization in my letter?
b) Did I inquire from my friend how he was doing? Did I use the present tense to do this?
c) Did I use the past tense in the incidents I recalled
d) Did I thank him for the lessons I learned from him?
c. Assessing Myself as a Friend
1) Pre-writing. How Am I As a Friend?
a) Rate yourself as a friend on this scale with 1 as the lowest and 5 the highest.
I easily reach out to others.
I wait for others to make friends
I share secrets with my friends
My friend's secrets are safe with me
I like giving things to my friends
I defend my friends when they are criticized
I help my friends when they are in need
I do not give up on my friends
b) Using the same scale, ask these persons to rate you.
1) a close friend 3) a neighbor of your age
2) a new acquaintance 4) a relative
Make a write-up of the results of your self-assessment and how others see you as a friend. In one paragraph write down how you rate yourself those eight points. Be sure to add follow-up sentences to each of the points.
In two other paragraphs write how the persons you asked to rate you see you as a friend. On what points is your self-rating similar to how other see you and on what points do they differ?
You may start your paragraphs using these expressions:
Paragraph One – Self rating
Paragraph Two – Similar Rating
Paragraph Three - Different Rating
On the other hand, they feel that _______________ .
3) Editing and rewriting
Go over your work and check it following these guidelines:
a) Did I mention your incidents to support my self-assessment on the eight points in the assessment form?
b) Did I put together the points that go together in the assessment form?
1 and 2 – making friends
3 and 4 – keeping secrets
6 and 4 – concern and loyalty
c) Did I use past tense in the incidents that I recalled?
E. Closure and Evaluation
1. CLOZE Test – Fill in the blanks with the deleted words.
A friend is someone who likes us. A friend can be anybody – a 1________
or a girl, young or old, __2 or poor. A friend is a ______3_______ special
person. We share our thoughts 4 . He or she listens 5______ us
when we want to talk, 6 __ not tell us to go away 7 be quiet. We
understand how a _________8_________ feels even without words and he_______9_______ understands how we feel. Certainly, 10 know we have found a friend because we are not alone anymore and there is no sadness inside us.
2. Make a summary of the things you have learned by writing your answers inside t* columns below.
WHAT I HAVE LEARNED
"Damon and Pythias"
"The Way of a Friend"
Rewrite the letter you wrote to a friend who has moved away and mail it. What information would you place in these lines of a skeletal format of an envelope?
The Bureau of Secondary Education (BSE) aims to provide access and quality secondary
education to the Filipino youth. It is responsible for establishing secondary schools where there are none; formulating policies, plans and projects, and maintaining a complete and integrated system of secondary education with regards to curriculum, facilities and teachers' in-service training relevant to the goals of national development.